The Vault, also known as Odin's Trophy Room is a underground vault holding all of Odin's prized possesions and spoils of war, such as The Orb of Agamotto, The Infinity Gauntlet, The Casket of Ancient Winters, The Eternal Flame, The Tablet of Life and Time, and The Warlocks Eye.
The Infinity Gauntlet
The Gauntlet grants the bearer infinite power over reality through the use of the six Infinity Stones embedded in it. The Gauntlet on display is the right hand where as Thanos has the left Gauntlet in his possession.
Tablet of Life and Time
The text written on the Tablet of Life is actually a chemical formula, the “Lifeline Formula,” which augments its user into a superior being, the best of their species.
The Orb of Agamotto
Another treasure of Odin's Trophy Room is the Orb of Agamotto. The Orb can be used locate where magic is being used, or dangers to the world. It can be, however, blocked by other powerful magic users (i.e. Asgardian sorceress Enchantress) to keep their location secret.
Also known as the Eternal Flame of Destruction, this mystical flame was stolen from Surtur by Odin and his brothers to prevent the demon and enemy of Asgard from lighting his sword and starting a war that could end the Norse Gods of Asgard.
The Warlock's Eye
The Warlock’s eye, is a mystical weapon stolen by Thor and the Warrior’s Three from Harokin, an Asgardian enemy of Thor in the comics. Its cinematic backstory is unknown.
The Casket of Ancient Winters
The Casket is powered by a limitless supply of magical energy. When used, it releases a blast of powerful arctic weather that is capable of freezing anything in its path; killing humans and immobilizing Asgardians. The Casket can only be used and handled by a Frost Giant; anyone else who attempts to open it would be burnt by the powerful cold aura that surrounds it. Its magic is also strong enough to temporarily disrupt the powers of Odin.
n Captain America: The First Avenger, the Tesseract is said by Johann Schmidt to have been the jewel of Odin's treasure room, and since the end of the Avengers it is so again. It is believed that the cube was left on Earth during the war with the Jotuns for yet unknown reasons. Schmidt broke in to a Nordic church and opened a tomb looking for the Tesseract. He takes a clear cube from the deceased's hands and shatters it on the floor, then proceeds to a secert compartment on the wall carving of Yggdrasill, the world tree. He pushes a snake's (Níðhöggr) eye and removes the Cosmic Cube from the wall. He later develops weapons using the Tesseract's energy. When recovered by S.H.I.E.L.D., the Tessarect was again experimented on in an attempt to create weapons. However, a mechanism was created by Erik Selvig under Loki's influence that allowed Loki to teleport to Earth. Loki stole the Tessarect and used it to open a portal above New York for the Chitauri army. At the conclusion of the battle Thor and Loki used the tessarect to return to Asgard. It was then used to repair the Bifrost and then returned to the treasure room. Along with the Odinforce, the Tesseract is the most powerful force in Asgard.
Before Thor was trusted with the mighty hammer, Mjölnir was placed in the Vault. It was present in the Vault when Odin took his young sons Thor and Loki to the Vault.
The Destroyer, when not in use, is kept in the Vault, and its duty is to protect the treasures of Odin's Trophy Room. The Destroyer was destroyed on Earth by Thor and it is unknown if a replacement was created.